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  Junkes, Janaina Accordi ; Carvalho, Maria Arlete ; Segadães, Ana Maria ; Hotza, Dachamir
Ceramic Tile Formulations from Industrial Waste
Interceram 60 (2011) [1] 36-41
Special Tile & Brick; Technical Papers

In recent years scientific issues related to environmental preservation have acquired great importance and a major challenge to be met is the recycling of materials discarded by various productive sectors. Due to the damage caused to the environment by technological development through the disposal of waste, this study seeks to evaluate the possibility of using industrial waste as alternative raw materials in the manufacture of ceramic tiles. Different industrial wastes that are classified as non-hazardous were selected: sludge from the crushing process of gneiss, sludge from the cutting and polishing process of varvite, sludge from the process of filtration-clarification of potable water and a clay also classified as waste. As it was generated, all waste was dried and disaggregated in ball mills, and characterized by X-ray fluorescence, Xray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analysis, optical dilatometry, and particle size distribution. The applicability of these wastes in the manufacture of ceramic tiles was guided by the phase diagram of the system SKA, and four formulations were established. For initial testing, these formulations were mixed and pressed into pellets, and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, 1000 C, 1050 °C, 1100 °C, and 1150 C. The plasticity formulations were evaluated by the Casagrande method with good results. Moreover, based on those preliminary results and after optimization of the processing conditions, the extrusion technique was used for the shaping process. The extruded samples were fired at 1100 °C and 1150 °C for 40 min and characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analysis, optical dilatometry, linear shrinkage, water absorption, and flexural strength. The crystalline phases identified were associated with the sintering conditions (temperature, time, atmosphere), as well the intrinsic characteristics of raw materials such as chemical composition, particle size and homogeneity. The wastes proved to be good alternative raw materials and the corresponding formulations were shown to be viable in the manufacture of ceramic tiles.

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